HISTORY

Manizales was founded on October 12, 1849, in the middle of a civil war between bipartisan followers, Liberals against Conservatives. The city was founded by a group of twenty antioquians (The Expedition of the 20), who came from Neira and Salamina. There is a strong Spanish influence in the culture and the population was very homogeneous, mostly whites, until other ethnic groups migrated to the city in search of the universities.

ECONOMY

Its core business traditionally has been the cultivation and production of coffee. This culture allowed the creation of new jobs and several factories, some of which remain in the metropolitan area while others have reduced their operations or moved to other cities aggravating the unemployment problem. These companies are engaged in products such as liquor, shoes, rubber, chocolate, banks, detergents and soaps, threshing and packaged coffee, sweets and metallurgy, among others. In addition there are institutions and companies involved in the coffee sector as the Departmental Committee of Coffee Growers of Caldas, Almacafé, Cenicafé, and a number of other industries involved in the process of coffee (threshers, cooperatives, exporters).

From the latter half of the twentieth century a lot of universities settled in the city to the point that some studies have pointed to the university and regard Manizales as the second largest city. The universities are attended by students from various regions of the country such as Tolima, Risaralda, Valle, Quindio Antioquia, Nariño and Huila, among others.

At present, economic activity has been distinguished the service sector in the form of call centers.

Manizales won first place in the special category of business promotion in the V Iberoamerican Digital Cities Award, organized by the Latin American Association of Research Centers and Telecommunication Enterprises (AHCIET). In a 2010 study conducted by the World Bank, Manizales ranked first as the city of Colombia where it is best and easiest to do business.

INFRASTRUCTURE 

The city has an urban nomenclature of Carreras (Colombian name for most avenue roads) that increases from north to south, and streets that increase from west to east. The main road of the city is the 23rd , called Santander Avenue as well, which occupies the highest point and extends along the crest of the hill; the formation of the city is planning a longitudinal central axis running the 23rd eastward. Parallel to South Avenue and Kevin Angel Avenue north orientation continues Santander Avenue in a lower level. In the center there is an avenue, Gilberto Alzate Avendaño, that continues fast flow westward.

Among the major industrial parks are Juanchito Industrial Park (Km 10 via the Magdalena River) and the Alta Suiza.

  • Travel around by public bus costs 1.350 COP to 1.700 COP (between 60 and 70 US cents). To get around by taxi is quite cheap with a minimum fee of 3.500 COP (about 1.50 US dollar). Getting on gondola lift (to buses terminus and Villamaría) costs 1.600 COP (70 US cents). Travel by bus to nearby cities is also fairly cheap; for example, a bus ride to Medellín, a city 4 or 5 hours away, costs about 40.000 COP one way (about $17 US).[2]

Ground transportation

Despite the mountainous geography of Manizales, the city has a network of streets and highways that connect the different parts of the city, as well as different regions of the country. It also has a bus terminus located next to the Pan American Highway, in the area of 'Los Cámbulos', from and to which vehicles bound for several cities. The presence of taxis is massive enough, the service is controlled by a meter that charges according to the distance and travel time. The rates vary in a range from 3.000 to 10.000 Colombian pesos (US $1.50-5). The airport area has a charge of about 3000 pesos (U.S. $1.5). There are multiple routes of buses, minibuses and groups that allow movement to any area of the city.

Manizales is located in the center of the three main cities of Colombia, in the so-called "Triángulo de Oro". The distance between Manizales and Bogotá is 303 km, between Manizales and Medellín 194 km, and between Manizales and Cali263 km. It is connected to neighboring capitals Pereira and Armenia through the Autopista del Café (Coffee Freeway).

Avenues

Because of the topography, traffic on east-west direction and vice versa, is flatter and faster than in a north-south or south-north, therefore the avenues Santander, Parallel, Kevin Pan and Angel, are arranged longitudinally most of its length. The few avenues with a north-south or south-north are the Centennial and October 12, the first most important because it connects the center with one of the station where converjen Uribe major access routes to the city.

  • Avenida Santander. Was the first avenue of the city, formerly called Cervantes. It is the most important avenues of the city. This makes travel in east-west direction (2 lanes) and west-east (2 lanes). This avenue does his entire tour of the race 23 from 32nd Street in the industry founders to Calle 71 in the battalion sector and vice versa. All around are some of the most important places of the city like: Founders Theatre, Alley Building, Plaza 51, The Triangle, Panorama Towers, University of Caldas, Catholic University, Cervantes Building, Park Antonio Nariño, Instituto Universitario de Caldas, Herbeo Tower, General Cable Plaza and the Zona Rosa. Mobility in this avenue: – 9 Traffic (West-East), 9 Traffic (East-West) – 2 `bridges.
  • Parallel Avenue. Was the second city avenue. This makes travel in east-west direction (2 lanes) and west-east (2 lanes). This avenue does his entire tour of the street race 25 from 33 in the Founders Park to Calle 71 in the Palermo neighborhood and vice versa. All around are important places of the city such as St. Stephen's Cemetery, University of CaldasPalogrande Stadium. Mobility in this avenue: – 5 Traffic (West-East), 5 Traffic (East-West) – 3-2 `bridges Glorieta.

Aerial cable

Modern version of the system in the 20s communicated it with Mariquita called Aerial Cable Manizales – Mariquita. It has two lines in operation and under construction:

  • Founders – The Cambulos.

It is the first line in Manizales Cable Air inaugurated October 30 of 2009. This cable line connecting the center of the city, with the transport terminal with a length of 2.1 km (1.3 mi) Each cabin has a sitting capacity of eight passengers and can carry 1,530 passengers per hour. It has three stations in its route:

The Cambulos "Located in Manizales Transport Terminal '- Bethany '" is the intermediate station located in the area of the source' - Founders' "Ubicadada in Manizales downtown, adjacent to Founders Park and around Park Caldas "

The Cable – The Yarumos. This is the second line in Manizales aerial cable and an extension of 760 meters. Its purpose is tourism. It has two stations in its route:

'Laureles "behind the mall Cable Plaza '- The Yarumos '" In the Ecopark The Yarumos »

  • The Cambulos – Villamaria.

This line would join the aerial cable coming from the city center to link with VillamariaCaldas[disambiguation needed]. Currently working.

Air transport

Manizales has a domestic airport called La Nubia Airport which has a runway of about 1,400 meters and provides services from 6 am to 6 pm. Due to weather conditions, it is often closed by low visibility. Meanwhile, the existence of buildings over two floors close to the head and make it unfeasible topographical expand the airport, which has become an obstacle to regional development;[3] For these reasons, Coffee International Airport is being built within the metropolitan area, in the town of Palestina, 25 minutes from the city. It will have a runway of 2,800 meters to 1,525 m, which would be extended to 3,500 meters in order to receive long-range aircraft. It is expected that the new airport is on duty 24 hours a day. It is currently being conducted and the adequacy of the ground motion.